LATIN3: /BACK TO LATIN2/Back to Main Menu you now know the basic statement.


Marcus Brutus/Caesarem occidit.

Suppose we just wanted to say not "Marcus Brutus" but "he" is killing Caesar?

I have a deal for you. You get this lesson for free. You already know how.


Leave out the actor. Leave the words "Marcus Brutus" out.

The verb happens to be the 'he' form. Or the 'she' form. Even the 'it' form.

You just say...

Caesarem occidit.

And it means He is killing Caesar! or He's killing Caesar!

Magical, eh?

Latin is a language of very few words.

Of course...Antony  could say, after Caesar had been out on the town, referring to Caesar's wife Calpurnia, "Caesarem occidit," meaning "She's killing Caesar." Rome was a small town, comparatively speaking. He, she, or it....Everyone knew what you meant.

Femina Caesarem occidit. The woman is killing Caesar.

Caesarem occidit. He is killing Caesar, she is killing Caesar, or you could even say, Cena Caesarem occidit.

Cena? That means dinner. [say: kay-na]  It's killing Caesar. Calpurnia's cooking, perhaps.

How's that for free knowledge?


I know, I know, now you want to know how to say I'm killing, you're killing, all that sort of gory thing. But let's not confuse ourselves. Stick to this simple pattern.

[ACTOR/ACTEE> <ACTION> or [missing actor]/ACTEE> <ACTION>

More words to play with:




cervus....deer, male


vacca....cow; say: WAH-ka [all v's are pronounced as w's]

Gallus....a Gaul

Britannus....a Briton; say: bree-TAHN-noos

Britannia....Britain; say: bree-TAHN-yah


facio...facere [make, do, construct, create]

forum...a public meeting place, a forum [actor/actee identical: forum]

Roma....Rome [yes, r's are rolled]

Florentia...Florence: say: flow-RAYN-t-ya

gloria.....reputation [good], fame

ars...[goes to artem] say: ARSSS. AR-tem.

calamitas..[goes to calamitatem] disaster ;say: kah-LAH-mee-tahs.

civitas....[goes to civitatem] a city as a political unit, a state, a city-state. say: KEE-wee-tahs, kee-wee-TAH-tem.

urbs...[goes to urbem] a city as an urban center, a city.



Caesar is taking Rome. He has Britain. Caesar has a reputation. Brutus is creating a disaster. Calpurnia is creating art. Calpurnia is making dinner. Caesar is creating a city-state. Caesar is building a city. Rome has a reputation. The woman is taking dinner. The wolf catches the deer. The she-wolf is catching her supper. He is building a city. He is creating art. It takes the deer. Look! the woman is catching Calpurnia. The wolf watches the deer.


Make up your own. Constantly consider <ACTOR/ACTEE> and the <ACTION>will suggest itself. Try some with 'he', 'she' or 'it' as ACTOR. [Yes, there are ACTEE forms of he/she/it: later for those.]


There are none, to speak of. These action words are verbs. You don't need to use a pronoun with them to express 'he, she' or 'it.' If there's no [ACTOR] expressed, the verb handles it.




Yes, Latin has pronouns. It doesn't use them much. You technical buffs get this one free, too.